chemistry

Best Chemistry Teacher on YouTube 2021 – #1 Animated Tutorials

If you are searching for the best Chemistry teacher on YouTube in 2021, so you must search for the one who make chemistry tutorials simple , understandable and remarkable, unique animation deeply penetrate the complete concept easily in your mind forever , so don’t miss the rising star on YouTube .

The one and only Digital Kemistry YouTube channel, Just visit Now & enjoy learning Chemistry Concept with 3d animated Tutorials for Class 9,10 & Class 11-12 .

Watch Now !!!

Ionic Bond Animation ( in Urdu/ Hindi)

Also Read !!!

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Coordinate Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Hydrogen Bond

Covalent Bond Animation ( in Urdu/ Hindi)

Metallic Bond Animation ( in Urdu/ Hindi)

Octet Rule and Duplet Rule Animation ( in Urdu/ Hindi)

Few Organic Chemistry Animated Tutorials

Free Radical Animation ( in Urdu/ Hindi)

Carbocation and its Classification

Also Read !!!

Carbocation and its types

Hyperconjugation

Also Read !!!

Hyperconjugation

Inductive Effect

For more best informative Chemistry videos , visit & Subscribe “DIGITAL KEMISTRY” & hit the bell for more updates

Follow me on:

Website

Facebook

Instagram

#BestChemistryTeacheronYouTube

#1

#DigitalKemistry

#ChemistryAnimatedTutorials

#2021BestChemistryTutor

chemistry

Inductive Effect in Organic Chemistry #DigitalKemistry

Inductive Effect

In Chemistry, inductive effect refer to the permanent formation in a molecule due to the unequal sharing of σ electrons in a molecule.

  • Inductive effect operate to σ-bond
  • Partial charge development
  • Can be neglected after 3rd Carbon atom
  • Effect depend on distance

Inductive effect is the partial shifting or Displacement of  σ electrons  towards the more

electronegative atom . As a result partial charges are developed in a molecule.

Inductive Effect in Chloroethane:

Here Carbon is less electronegative than Chlorine so Cl will pull the shared electron pair more towards itself. As a result polarity or partial charges are developed on chlorine (partial negative )and carbon (partial positive).

Chlorine will pull the electron pair more than the carbon due to more electronegativity .Due to this the carbon becomes electron deficient bearing partial positive charge .This carbon then pull the electrons from the adjacent carbon so this effect travel and decreases with distance.

Classification of Inductive Effect:

Inductive effect is classified into following 2 types:

  1. Positive inductive effect (+I effect)
  2. Negative inductive effect (-I effect)

Difference between +I & -I Effect:

Positive inductive effect (+I effect):

When an electron donating or electron releasing group(such as alkyl group) is introduced to a carbon chain the charged is transferred through the chain. This results in a permanent dipole in a molecule where the electron donating group is called  +I group and this effect is known as +I effect.

For example :

CH3-CH+ -CH3

Here methyl group(CH3) is an electron donating or releasing group which increases the stability of carbocation (which is electron deficient) by donating electron. Here Methyl group is +I Group and this effect is known as +I effect.

Negative inductive effect (-I effect):

When an electronegative atom (e.g. halogen) is introduced to a chain of atoms(generally carbon atom), resulting in unequal sharing of electrons generates a positive charge which is transmitted through the chain. This results in a permanent dipole in a molecule where the electronegative atom(electron withdrawing group)holds a negative charge is called a –I group and this effect is known as –I effect(Positive inductive effect).

For example:

CH3-CH2 -Cl

Here Chlorine(Cl) is an electron withdrawing group which pulls the electron pair from adjacent carbon & this carbon in turn pulls electron from the neighboring carbon ,this effect will travel and decrease (up to 3 carbon if present) . Here Chlorine is -I Group and this effect is known as -I effect (negative inductive effect).

Also Read !!

Hyperconjugation | Hyperconjugation Effect in Carbocation 

What is Carbocation?

Carbocation and its Classification

Methyl Radical

Difference between Carbocation and Carbanion

Free Radical

For more informative Chemistry Lessons

Subscribe “DIGITAL KEMISTRY”  YOUTUBE Channel

Follow me on:

Website

Facebook

Instagram

Pinterest

chemistry

What is Carbocation? – Organic Chemistry – Digital Kemistry

Do you Know !!!

Carbocation is an ion that is electron deficient having positively charge carbon and three bonds.

Carbocation Shape :

As three bond pair electrons are present around the positively charged carbon indicates trigonal planar shape of carbocation.

Remember !!

The shape and bond angle of a molecule or ion can be easily determined according to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory.

Watch Valence Shell Electron pair Repulsion Theory(in Urdu/Hindi)

Carbocation Hybridization:

Carbocation having trigonal planar geometry is sp2 hybridized.

Finding Hybridization Trick !!!

The easiest trick to find the type of hybridization is to count the total number of sigma bonds and the total number of lone pair electrons .

If the total number of sigma bonds and the total number of lone pair electrons= 4 hybrid orbitals = sp3 hybridization

If the total number of sigma bonds and the total number of lone pair electrons= 3 hybrid orbitals = sp2 hybridization

If the total number of sigma bonds and the total number of lone pair electrons= 2 hybrid orbitals = sp hybridization

Watch Now !!!

Finding Hybridization Tips & Tricks -sp sp2 sp3 Hybridization

sp3 sp2 and sp Hybridization determination Trick (in Urdu / Hindi)

Is Carbocation Electrophile?

Every atom /molecule or ion want to become stable .

To attain stability atom /molecule or ion must have a complete outer most shell (octet).

Carbocation carbon having 6 valence shell electron indicates the incomplete octet (8 electrons).Therefore, carbocation is highly reactive , unstable and seeks electrons to complete valence electrons .Therefore ,carbocation is an electrophile.

Is carbocation Lewis acid or Lewis base?

Carbocation is a Lewis acid because of incomplete valence electron ,it can accept electron pair to be stable.

As Lewis acid is the electron pair acceptor.

Classification Of Carbocation:

Carbocation are classified as follow:

  1. Primary (10)Carbocation
  2. Secondary (20)Carbocation
  3. Tertiary(30) Carbocation

Watch Now!!!

Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Carbocation Identification Tricks (in Urdu /Hindi)

Also watch!!!

Carbocation, Carbanion and Carbradical

Carbocation and its Classification

Methyl Radical

Difference between Carbocation and Carbanion

Free Radical

For more informative Chemistry Lessons

👉Subscribe “DIGITAL KEMISTRY” & hit the bell🔔 icon for updates

Follow me on:

Website

Facebook

Instagram

Pinterest

chemistry

Hyperconjugation | Hyperconjugation Effect in Carbocation – Organic Chemistry | Digital Kemistry

What is Hyperconjugation?

Hyperconjugation  is the stabilizing interaction of the σ electrons (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent p-orbital (empty or partially filled or a” π” – orbital) .

Hyperconjugation is known as No bond Resonance or σ-bond” π” orbital resonance.

Hyperconjugation plays an important role in the stability of the following:

  • Carbocations
  • Free Radicals
  • Alkenes

Hyperconjugation Effect in Carbocation:

Rules for Hyperconjugation in Carbocations:

  1. Positively charged carbon with empty p – orbital
  2. C-H sigma bond electrons

The C-H sigma electrons are dispersed or shifted towards the empty p- orbital. As a result of the dispersion(delocalization ) of electrons ,the positive charge on carbon get dispersed and a carbocation get stabilized.

Ethyl Carbocation- Example of Hyperconjugation:

In ethyl carbocation, the positively charged carbon has empty p-orbital (due to the electron deficiency ,carbocation is an electrophile).The sigma electrons are delocalizes between C-H and empty p-orbital .As a result of this interaction, the positive charge on carbon get dispersed and stabilized.

More Hyperconjugation = More stability of Carbocation

How you can calculate the stability of carbocation with hyperconjugation :

Calculating the total number of alpha hydrogen to find the stability of carbocation plays a vital role.

More no. of alpha hydrogen = More hyperconjugation = More stable carbocation

Carbon adjacent to the positively charged carbon is α carbon and all the hydrogen attached with this carbon are α hydrogens.

Stability order of carbocation:

More alkyl groups attached to the positively charged carbon = More Hyperconjugation = More stability

Methyl carbocation< Primary carbocation < secondary carbocation < tertiary carbocation

Also Read !!!

Classification of Carbocation:

https://digitalkemistry.wordpress.com/2020/12/29/classification-of-carbocation/

What are free radicals Chemistry Definition ,Examples ,Formation and Properties

https://digitalkemistry.wordpress.com/2020/11/30/what-are-free-radicals-chemistry%f0%9f%98%8a-definition-examples-formation-and-properties-digital-kemistry/

Also Read !!!

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Coordinate Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Hydrogen Bond

Visit to our Youtube channel Digital Kemistry for more 3d Chemistry Tutorials

#DigitalKemistry

#BestChemistryTutorials

chemistry

Classification of Carbocation

Do you know!!!

Carbocation:

Carbocation is defined as the positively charged carbon atom having three bonds .

Carbocation is highly unstable and reactive due to incomplete carbon octet. Therefore, it is a reaction intermediate in a chemical reaction.

Classification of Carbocation:

Carbocations are classified on the basis of no of carbon groups (alkyl groups)attached with the positively charged carbon atom.

  • Methyl Carbocation
  • Primary Carbocation
  • Secondary Carbocation
  • Tertiary Carbocation

Methyl carbocation:

If no carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge is termed as methyl carbocation.

Primary carbocation:

If 1 carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge is termed as primary carbocation.

Primary carbocation is also known as 10 carbocation.

Secondary carbocation:

If 2 carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge is termed as secondary carbocation.

Secondary carbocation is also known as 20 carbocation.

Tertiary carbocation:

If 3 carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge is termed as tertiary carbocation.

Tertiary carbocation is also known as 30 carbocation.

Identify which one is primary ,secondary or tertiary carbocation!!!

CH3- CH2-CH+-H

Here 1 carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge ,so it is primary carbocation.

CH3- CH2-CH+-CH2- CH2CH3

Here 2 carbon is attached to the carbon with positive charge ,so it is secondary carbocation.

Stability order of Carbocation:

More the alkyl groups attached to the positively charged carbon, more the stability of carbocation.

Tertiary carbocation is the most stable carbocation because three carbon groups (methyl groups) are attached to the positively charged carbon ,increasing the stability by donating electrons to the electron deficient carbon of carbocation.

Whereas ,methyl carbocation is the least stable carbocation as no alkyl group is attached to the positively charged carbon.

Increasing order of carbocation stability is as follow:

methyl carbocation< primary carbocation< secondary carbocation< tertiary carbocation

Watch Now !!!

Classification of Carbocation Animation (Urdu/ Hindi) on YouTube

Also Watch !!!

Carbocation, Carbanion and Carbradical (Urdu / Hindi)

basic chemistry, chemistry, general chemistry, science

Methyl Cation , Methyl Anion and Methyl Radical – Organic Chemistry – Digital Kemistry

Do you Know !!!

Methyl Cation , Methyl Anion and Methyl Radical are the reaction intermediate in Organic Chemistry.

As a result of C-H bond cleavage of methane molecule following chemical species are formed.

1.Methyl cation

2.Methyl anion

3.Methyl radical

Bond Cleavage in methane molecule:

Methane is a stable molecule.

Two types of bond cleavage(breakage) takes place in methane molecule .

Homolytic cleavage:

Covalent bond breakage in which the shared electrons is split evenly between the atoms.

Heterolytic cleavage:

Covalent bond breakage in which the shared electrons are retained by more electronegative atom.

As a result of heterolytic cleavage ,methyl cation and methyl anion is formed and methyl radical is formed as a result of homolytic cleavage.

Methyl Cation Formation:

When the methyl group is attached to more electronegative element,the more electronegative element will pull the electron pair results in the formation of methyl cation.

Methyl cation is carbocation and is act as a Lewis acid because it is electron deficient and electron acceptor specie.

Methyl Cation Formation:

When the methyl group is attached to less electronegative element ,the carbon in methyl pulls the electron pair from less electronegative element results in the formation of methyl anion.

Methyl anion is carbanion and is act as a Lewis base because it is electron rich and electron pair donor specie.

Methyl Radical Formation:

As a result of homolytic cleavage of methane molecule ,the shared electron pair is evenly distributed between the carbon and hydrogen of methane results in the formation of methyl free radical and hydrogen free radical .

Also Read!!!

Methyl Radical Definition ,Formula ,Lewis Structure ,Shape ,Bond Angle ,Hybridization

Watch Now !!!

Methyl Radical ( in Urdu / Hindi)

Also Watch Now !!!

Free Radical ( in Urdu / Hindi)

Homolytic vs Heterolytic Cleavage – Bond Cleavage (in Urdu/ Hindi)

basic chemistry, chemistry, general chemistry, science

Methyl Radical Definition ,Formula ,Lewis Structure ,Shape ,Bond Angle ,Hybridization – Organic Chemistry -Digital Kemistry

What is Methyl Radical?

Methyl radical( .CH3) is an organic compound derived from methane(CH4 ) is the reaction intermediate that is highly reactive, short lived and unstable.

Methyl Radical Formula:

Methyl free radical is represented by .CH3

Methyl radical Formation:

Homolytic cleavage between C-H bond in methane molecule results in the formation of methyl free radical and hydrogen free radical.

Methyl radical Lewis Structure:

Methyl radical have central carbon atom( 4 electrons in valence shell) is surrounded by 3 hydrogen atoms (each hydrogen having 1 valence electron).As a result of covalent bond between carbon and hydrogen ,methyl radical having 7 electrons (odd no. of electrons) in total as you can see in diagram:

Central carbon atom in methyl free radical having 3 bond pair and one unpaired electrons so the total 7 electrons around the carbon atoms represent the incomplete valence electrons(incomplete octet) .That’s why methyl radical is highly reactive and unstable.

Methyl radical Shape or Geometry:

According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, when three bond pair electrons are present around the central atom, it will result in the formation of trigonal planar shape or geometry of methyl radical.

Methyl Radical Bond Angle:

According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, if a molecule having trigonal planar shape or geometry so it will have an angle of 1200 .Therefore methyl radical having a bond angle of 1200 with trigonal planar geometry .

Methyl Radical Hybridization:

The easiest trick to find the hybridization type is to count the total number of sigma bonds (single covalent bond) and lone pair electrons around the central atom so that you can determine the type of hybridization easily.

Formula to find Hybridization:

Type of hybridization= Total no. of sigma bond + Total no. of lone pair electrons

sp3 hybridization= Total no. of sigma bond + Total no. of lone pair electrons = 4 hybrid orbitals

sp2 hybridization= Total no. of sigma bond + Total no. of lone pair electrons = 3 hybrid orbitals

sp hybridization= Total no. of sigma bond + Total no. of lone pair electrons = 2 hybrid orbitals

In methyl radical, we have 3 sigma bonds and 1 un paired (not involved in hybridization) so the total of 3 hybrid orbitals results in sp2 hybridization.

Also Watch Hybridization Tips and Tricks ( in Urdu / Hindi)

Also Watch Free Radical ( in Urdu / Hindi)

chemistry

Methyl Free Radical Structure ,Hybridization, Formation – Digital Kemistry

What is methyl free radical ?

Homolytic cleavage of the methane (CH4) molecule results in the formation of methyl free radical and hydrogen free radical.

Here dot represent the unpaired electron in methyl and hydrogen free radical.

Do you know !!!

What is Free Radical ?

Atom or group of atoms (molecules) having unpaired valence electrons is called free radical.

Methyl Free radical Shape:

As the carbon in methyl radical having 3 bond pair and one unpaired electron results in trigonal planar shape and bond angle of 1200 .

Methyl Free radical Hybridization:

Remember that any chemical specie (molecule or ion) having trigonal shape and 1200 bond angle results in sp2 hybridization so methyl free radical is sp2 hybridized specie having 3 bond pairs around the central carbon atom.

Methyl Free radical formation from methane:

In the presence of light ,homolytic cleavage of a stable methane molecule results in the even distribution of electrons among the products (methyl free radical and hydrogen free radical).

basic chemistry, chemistry, general chemistry, science

What are free radicals Chemistry😊 Definition ,Examples ,Formation and Properties- Digital Kemistry

Do you Know !!!

What are free radicals?

Free radical Definition

Chemical specie (atom/molecule) having unpaired valence shell electron .

Remember !!

unpaired electron indicate odd number of valence shell electrons

For example :

Hydrogen atom having unpaired valence electron (1e-).

Similarly Chlorine atom having unpaired valence electron (7e-).

Watch Now !!!

Free Radical Animated video in Urdu / Hindi:

How does free radical formed?

Homolytic cleavage of the molecule (formed by the sharing of electrons via covalent bond) results in the formation of free radical.

Now!!!

What is Homolytic Cleavage?

Covalent bond breakage in which the shared electrons is split evenly between the products.

Representation of free radical:

unpaired valence shell electron in free radical is represented by a dot .

Examples of free radicals:

Formation of Chlorine free radicals :

Cl2 is a stable Chlorine molecule .When the homolytic cleavage of the chlorine molecule takes place in the presence of light ,it will results in the even distribution of electrons between the products as chlorine free radicals .

As you can see in the diagram that the chlorine free radicals having 7 valence electrons (unpaired / odd electron numbers) indicates chlorine free radical formation.

Why free radicals are highly reactive?

free radicals are highly reactive due to the unpaired valence electron.

Properties of free radicals:

  • Free radicals having unpaired valence electrons
  • Free radicals are highly reactive
  • Free radicals are paramagnetic in nature

Also Read !!!

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Coordinate Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Hydrogen Bond

Visit to our Youtube channel Digital Kemistry for more 3d Chemistry Tutorials

#DigitalKemistry

#BestChemistryTutorials

chemistry

What is Hydrogen bond -Types of hydrogen bonding with Examples- Digital Kemistry

Hydrogen Bonding

The force of attraction in which hydrogen atom ,which is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom in a molecule is attracted by the lone pair electron of another electronegative atom in a nearby molecule is called hydrogen bonding.

Types of Hydrogen Bonding:

There are two types of hydrogen bonding

1.Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding

2.Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

Intermolecular Hydrogen bond formed between two molecules.

Intramolecular Hydrogen bond formed between two  different atoms in a  same molecule.

Is the Hydrogen bonding between water molecules intermolecular or intramolecular:

Examples of Intermolecular H-bonds:

1.Hydrogen bonds between HF molecules.

2.Hydrogen bonds between NH3 molecules.

3.Hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules.

Examples of Intramolecular H-bonds:

Hydrogen bonding in o-nitro phenol.